A calorie is a unit of energy. When you hear something contains 100 calories, it’s a way of describing how much energy your body could get from eating or drinking it. There are calories in each of the three main macronutrients that we eat – carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Each macronutrient contains the following calories per gram:

🔺Carbohydrate: 4 calories
🔺Fat: 9 calories
🔺Protein: 4 calories

Other macronutrients, such as fiber, may differ in calorie content depending on whether it is soluble or insoluble fiber.

. . . and, by the way, alcohol serves up seven calories per gram.




Carbohydrates are nutrients that the body uses in relatively large amounts. They are a 𝑚𝑎𝑗𝑜𝑟 source of energy for your body since they are broken down into blood glucose, which is used to make energy for cells, tissues and organs. However, if there is more sugar than the body can use, the liver may break the sugar down further and store it as body fat.
There are two kinds of carbohydrates: 𝐬𝐢𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐞 and 𝐜𝐨𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐞𝐱.
S𝐢𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐞 𝐜𝐚𝐫𝐛𝐬 are made of one or two sugar molecules. These sugars are digested quickly in your body, making them a fast source of energy. Some examples of simple carbs include candy, jams, jellies, soft drinks, honey and table sugar, and other sugars that may be added when foods are processed or prepared.
C𝐨𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐞𝐱 𝐜𝐚𝐫𝐛𝐬 are made from large strings of sugar molecules so they tend to be digested slowly. Complex carbs include legumes, such as peas or beans, starchy vegetables, and whole grain breads and cereals.
Are fruits simple or refined?
Fruits (vegetables and dairy) are technically made of simple carbohydrates, but because of the fiber, protein and other nutrients that naturally occur in these foods, they act more like complex carbohydrates in the body
Choose complex carbs over simple carbs because they are good sources of fiber and other nutrients your body needs.


Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance present in all parts of the body including the nervous system, skin, muscles, liver, intestines, and heart. It is both made by the body and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver for normal body functions including the production of hormones, bile acid, and vitamin D. It is transported in the blood to be used by all parts of the body.

In the blood stream, cholesterol combines with fatty acids to form high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoproteins. LDLs are considered the “bad cholesterol,” since they can stick together to form plaque deposits on the walls of your blood vessels, leading to atherosclerosis.

A good way to remember the difference between the two:

“H” = happy 😊 . . . “L” = lousy 😒


Cortisol is a hormone made by the two adrenal glands; there’s one atop of each kidney. This hormone is important in activating the immune system and processing carbohydrates. High amounts of cortisol are released in moments of stress — thus, the nickname “the stress hormone” — but unhealthy lifestyle habits, like alcohol consumption, too little sleep, and a high glycemic diet, are some of the other primary drivers of harmfully high cortisol levels.

When you have too much cortisol in your body over a long period, a disorder called Cushing’s syndrome can occur.

On the other hand, when the adrenal glands aren’t making enough cortisol and other hormones, people can develop adrenal insufficiency or Addison’s disease.